This study presents the first large-scale comparative field experiment on phenotypic discrimination in employment carried out simultaneously and with a harmonised methodology in three European countries: Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. We sent over 9,000 fictitious résumés to real vacancies in six different occupations randomly varying the treatments for ethnicity (measured using country of ancestry and ethnic names) and phenotype (measured using applicants’ photographs). We examine average differences in callback rates across four ‘racial’ groups comprising eight different photographs carefully matched in dimensions of attractiveness and likeability. We investigate phenotypic discrimination comparatively with special attention to country differences and phenotype-ethnicity intersections.
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